Don’t have massive budget to invest on those premium grow lights? Well, I didn’t have it either when I started before few years.
Yeah, there are several LEDs available on the market with your limited budget. You just have to do your research properly. Well, that’s the reason we’ve done hard work for you collected some lights, on which you can count as some of the Best Cheap LED Grow Lights That Work in real life.
Moreover, we’ve not randomly taken any of these light, rather we’ve passed each light from our predefined filters about an ideal LED grow light.
Yeah, so we can confidently say that these works well even if they are cheap in price.
So now, without wasting time in random talks let’s start exploring those lights one by one.[no_toc]
Best Cheap LED Grow Lights That Work in 2022
- Editor’s Choice: Roleadro GalaxyHydro 1000W LED Grow Light
- Best Overall: Mars Hydro 300W LED Grow Light
- Best Premium Performer: HiGrow DC 600W LED Grow Light
- Best Mid-Range: Bestva 600W Full Spectrum LED Grow Light
- Best Power Saver: Apollo Horticulture 180W UFO Grow Light
- Best Choice for Density: Realssy 450W COB LED Grow Light
- Best Economic Choice: Growstar 45W LED Grow Light
- Best Budget: TaoTronics 36W Grow Bulb
Review Of Best Cheap LED Grow Light For The Money In 2022
|Best Cheap LED Grow Lights|
CHOICE FOR DENSITY
We usually provide this table to help people in simplifying their decision making process. So, use it accordingly and check what it has for you.
As stated earlier, there are several brands working on producing affordable and best budget LED grow lights that could be provided at some inexpensive prices.
Yeah, we could say that, their prime intention could be to build the trust among their customers for long term business.
Here’s our top 8 choices for best cheap & inexpensive LED grow lights that could help you in fulfilling your needs of getting better yield.
And our first choice is….
1. Roleadro Galaxyhydro Series 1000W LED :- Best Cheap LED Grow Light For Results
Yeah, our winner for cheap yet working and effective light is Roleadro Galaxyhydro Series 1000W LED Grow Light. We’ve selected it for some obvious and unavoidable reasons. Yeah, it has capability to deliver more than expectations and that makes it best budget LED Grow Light for indoor plants.
So, let’s have a close look on this LED by Roleadro!
Features & Benefits of Roleadro Galaxyhydro Series 1000W LED
- Optimal Spectrum & Latest Design :- No Compromise On Essential Element
First thing that we liked about Roleadro Galaxyhydro 1000W is it’s caliber when it comes to spectrum. Yeah, in its spectrum you’ll get almost all the most vital bands that we usually expect in real sunlight.
To produce well balanced spectrum they’ve utilized 86 PCs of RED shade LEDs, 10 PCs of BLUE shade LEDs, 1 PCs IR LED, 1 PCs UV LED and 1 PCs White LED on it’s panel.
Yeah, produced spectrum gives ration of RED:BLUE = 8:2 and helps plants in getting faster and healthy growth.
Also, note that, due to majority of red band in its spectrum, flowers bloomed from plants have found to be more resinous and heavier compared to other lights.
- Brightness & Coverage :- Vast Enough to Cover 3’ X 3’
With help of optical lens placement over the LED chips as a cover, light effect will be maximized up to some remarkable extend.
In term of figure, Galaxyhydro 1000W Full Spectrum LED is capable of delivering PAR Results up to 453 uMol from the height of 18”. And, you can easily utilize it for your desired or predefined grow space of about 3’ X 3’.
However, depending on hanging height and LED placement coverage can be increased or decreased, though we won’t recommend to play above recommendation if you want best yield at the end.
- Power Readings :- Below the Bar
No, it won’t suck 1000W for its functioning. Yes, brands usually use that figure for mentioning potential and capability in terms of HPS replacement.
Well, Roleadro claims that one can replace a 1000W LED grow light, however looking at its caliber we can assure replacement up to a 600-900W HPS system with grow light.
However, when it comes to actual power draw, this grow light left us amazed! Yeah, it just pulls 135W for proper functioning.
And as they’ve not placed any dimmer or additional mode switch it is rare to deviate from our mentioned figure.
- Cooling & Safety :- Taken Into Consideration While Making It
Well when it comes to safety of plants and users, Roleadro never lefts a loophole we must say. Also Note that, our previous statement is based on some of our experts personal experiences.
For balancing heat and to maintain freshness in the grow space, they’ve used two highly functional cooling fans.
Also, there is presence of an advanced heat sink made up of aluminium and which does its job in precise manner. Built-in thermal controller acts as an alert for this grow panel and helps in activating cooling systems as and when needed.
- Additional Feature :- Some Bonus
As an additional feature you’re getting Daisy chaining in this grow light by Roleadro. Yeah, it comes handy when you think about scaling or expansion.
It lets you connect another grow light without requiring an additional wall socket for power supply.
What Makes Roleadro Galaxyhydro Series 1000W A Right Cheap LED Grow Light?
Pros And Cons Of Roleadro Galaxyhydro Series 1000W LED
Who Should Buy Roleadro Galaxyhydro Series 1000W LED?
2. Mars Hydro 300W LED :- Best Budget LED Grow Light by High Praised Brand
When it comes to budget friendly products for result oriented people, Mars Hydro is the brand that makes a stand.
Yeah, this brand has vast experience in manufacturing indoor grow tools, let it be grow lights or be grow tents.
Also, they’re backed with number of experienced growers as testers who actively suggests them to make appropriate changes in their products so that it could deliver best possible results.
So, let us explore what it has in its pocket.
Features & Benefits of Mars Hydro 300W LED
- Build & Design
While looking at this panel it’s in no way different than those regular hyped LED grow lights. However, fact is its making and overall design mechanism is top notch if you look at it from plant’s survival point of view.
Yeah, it is sturdy, number of different range of LEDs are well balanced. Also, air and heat ventilation is taken care of on this LED grow light which is a definite plus in many ways.
Also, LEDs utilized on this panel are featuring state-of-the-art SMD LED tech which is another plus.
Moreover, LED diodes used on its panel are of best quality available, and if we talk about drivers and zener diodes which handles occasional failures in majority of panels then too, this grow light by mars hydro is well capable of winning the race.
- Plant Oriented Spectrum Along With IR
Yeah, range of different bands included in its shading includes 400-410nm, 440-450nm, 450-460nm, 630-635nm, 650-660nm, 730-740nm and 2700K-3000K which covers almost all of the vital bands that play a major role in a marijuana plant’s overall growth.
So yeah, with best on the board combination of RED + BLUE band and inclusion of IR this LED grow light is a definite yielding factor for healthy and well-sustained plants.
- Effective PAR Outputs
While HPS replacement figures are crap marketing traps, PAR helps us to determine capability and caliber of a grow light when it comes to coverage determination tests and light effectiveness.
Well, if we talk about mars hydro 300W then this grow light is capable of providing you 450 uMol of PAR results from the height of 18”. Yeah, it is completely moderate and well capable of spreading highly dense and efficient light all over your plant canopies.
- Jaw Dropping Coverage Caliber in Segment
Now, if we talk about coverage caliber then Mars Hydro 300W could cover 3.5’X3.5’ of space with ease during vegetation. While, during bloom we usually set our lights more closer to our plants and hence reduced coverage space.
However, still in blooming it will help you by providing almost 2.5’X2.5’ of average coverage which is more than enough for 3-4 weed plants in your indoor grow space.
If we take all 300W grow light in same price segment & with same of better PAR outputs then this one will win the streak by providing you better results in mentioned coverage space.
- Low Noise
Yeah, while growing plants indoor we all fancy a peaceful environment in our house. However, many brands fails miserably in maintaining the same, this one will help you in achieving a silent and peaceful growing experience.
Yeah, Mars 300W LED‘s noise level is mere 49dB only, so, you could expect more silent grow space if you’ve other tools like fans, ventilator etc. in regulated noise level.
- Moderate Power Consumption
Yeah, no one would like to invest their hard earned money on a long run money sucker. And, that’s why we recommend fellow indoor growers to focus on average power consumption instead of focusing on product price.
However, along with a low price tag, this item is capable of maintaining your budget in long term as well. Yeah, it just pulls on around 100W while working which is completely moderate if we look at the price segment.
- Daisy Chaining
It happens often when we begin with a new hobby or interest that initially we’re confused about with what amount of space we want to try with.
Yeah, if you’re falling in such type of beginner cultivators then we highly recommend you to look for a daisy chain capable LED grow light. Reason being, it’s not certain that whether you’ll carry on with same space or you’ll expand your horizon in future.
Well, if you’re beginning then this one is just a right product with low price tag, better results and also, daisy chain functionality. Yeah, this one features daisy chaining and you can extend number of row lights with ease by utilizing this feature.
- Additional Freebies
Well, you might be glad to know that, this grow light is not a mere piece of a panel that you’re going to get, but with an LED panel you’ll also get few freebies as well, such as a thermometer to keep an eye on your grow space temperature, a timer which is supplemented for setting your panel as per your convenience of use and a hanging rope and cornering hooks.
What Makes Mars Hydro 300W A Right Cheap Led Grow Light?
Pros And Cons Of Mars Hydro 300W LED
Who Should Buy Mars Hydro 300W LED?
3. HiGrow DC 600W LED :- Go High With HiGrow
And here it comes from HiGrow; A new yet successful brand. Yeah, it should be your prime concern that on the verge of finding cheap product, you’re not wasting your money on a failed brand.
Well, HiGrow is an underrated brand in our opinion. Because, we’ve seen people getting commendable results using its products.
Now, if we talk about 600W model by higrow then it comes with a lot of features and abilities that we usually don’t expect from an inexpensive led grow light.
Yeah, let’s check what it has that amazed some of our team members too.
Features & Benefits of HiGrow Double Chip 600W LED
- Rock Solid Build & Impressive Design
With more than 50000 hours of lifespan & verified usage of at least 2.5 years; doubting its build quality of product reliability won’t be a justified way of criticizing it.
Yeah, we’ve got more than 45 users who are using it since last 2.5 years and none of them reported an issue concerning their utilization.
So, all in all, it is completely verified that product is equipped with some standard parts and materials in it.
Now, if we talk about design then the only thing that we were expecting and it didn’t featured is two separate mode controllers. Yeah, it eases the job of keeping light quality on track.
However, this single fallback don’t make it any bad. In fact, designing and light placement is done in a perfect way that don’t make its user feel that absence of dual mode controllers.
- Quality of Light – Plant oriented
Yeah, when we say “Plant oriented”, we actually mean it. Nowadays, there are many suppliers who are selling their products on the name of a full spectrum LED grow light in cheap rates.
But, this is not falling in any such categories. Yeah, we’ve checked its spectrum quality by keeping factors of yield on other part.
In our opinion, that’s being labelled as a full spectrum led grow light and don’t produce visible results is a complete crap. However, upon checking the obtained results from number of people we found that it is capable of producing at least 2-2.5 oz on average single handedly.
Yeah, HiGrow 600W LED Grow light delivers a complete and well balanced full spectrum light. Where traces of IR and UV could be found from quality, growth rate and health of the plants.
- Affordable Power Efficiency for Longer Run
As our regular readers already know the fact that instead of relying on HPS replacement figures we mainly focus towards the power efficiency.
Yeah, this factor plays a major role in calculating long term cost.
Now, if we talk about average actual power pulling measures of Higrow 600W LED grow light then this one of the best budget led grow light consumes only 120W from the outlet.
Yeah, that’s the highest we found among hundreds of users. Also, we’ve tested it in our lab and our electrician reported that this grow light won’t go above 120W if everything else is properly organized in a grow space.
- Coverage & Light Density
While talking about most essential aspects of indoor growing, how one could neglect coverage caliber of an LED grow light?
Yeah, after all this is something that evaluates your entire growing requirements.
Well, being one of the best inexpensive LED grow light on the market, HiGrow 600W LED grow light delivers quality light with least LCP of 50 uMol from 24” to 1.5 ft. radius.
Yeah, from 24” height you’ll get 314 umol readings in the center while with optimal quality which also knowns as LCP in indoor grow lighting calculations it could cover an area of 3’ X 3’.
Moreover, this grow light is one of the most ideal LED chosen by people using 3.5’ X 3.5’ grow tent for their growing ventures.
- Additional Features, Safety & Support
Talking about additional features, it has got daisy chaining for people who are not yet sure about their final coverage expectations
Now, if we talk about safety parameters of Higrow 600 Watt LED then as it utilizes an optical lens mechanism for maximizing effect of light, risk of catching fire from reflector has been completely eliminated.
Moreover, internal parts and it’s placement is done perfectly and in a complete scientific way. Yeah, they’ve used zeners in between each LED to avoid potential failures.
And, talking about support, HiGrow provides 3 years of local warranty to their users along with 30 days money back policy for those who are disappointed from this product.
Well, there are very few people who felt disappointed, though it’s not even possible to justify a products caliber with that short time-span.
What Makes HiGrow Double Chip 600W One of the Best Budget LED Grow Light?
Pros And Cons Of HiGrow Double Chip 600W LED
Who Should Buy HiGrow Double Chip 600W LED?
4. Bestva 600W LED Grow Light :- Real Working Light A Cheap Price
Yeah, talking about best budget LEDs and missing a mention of bestva isn’t justified at first place.
For people who are hearing this name for the first time, let me tell you, Bestva is a brand with which majority of people in our expert’s panel had started their first grow venture.
Yeah, it’s so common to find a bestva LED in a beginner’s grow space if that person has taken an opinion from any expert on the field.
Well, reasons are obvious, it is cheaply affordable yet it has so much to deliver. Yeah, let it be build quality or light quality everything is perfectly included in Bestva’s models.
So, now without wasting your time, let’s take a deep look at this Detailed Review of Bestva Dc600.
Features & Benefits of Bestva 600W LED Grow Light
- Reliance of Brand & Quality of Product
Yeah, once can’t go wrong with bestva 600W LED grow light. The brand is performing great on the market since almost a decade now and they’ve succeeded in grabbing a permanent place in indoor weed cultivator’s heart.
Yeah, this is only possible when you deliver a product with utmost perfection and with all essential factors in the place.
Also, quality of product is better than what you pay for. Every part and element in it is made up of top quality materials. Moreover, these parts are either manufactured in their own manufacturing unit of is exported from trustworthy brands like epistar & bridgelux.
- Suitable Light For All Phase
Bestva 600W Dual Chip LED grow light is manufactured by keeping plant’s growth and health in the mind.
Yeah, almost all essential band we expect in a premium grow light has been found in optimal quantity in its spectrum effect.
Moreover, addition of IR & UV is done precisely and in a way that UV don’t harm plants by providing overage of ultraviolet effect.
Also, panel features two separate mode switches using what you could control overall effect of light as well as its shade. Yeah, it is most ideal way of raising plants with a single LED grow light for all phases of the plant’s lifecycle.
- No Harm Precautions
Usually, manufacturer’s implement reflector designs in their products. Yeah, to maximize the light effect and even in some cases to manipulate PAR readings.
However, Bestva 600W model is equipped with optical lenses to keep maximization on track and to avoid any potential hazards that are usually happen with a reflector.
Also, placement of LED is done at 120 degrees angle so that all light being produced by individual chips could be distributed evenly over each of the plant canopies.
- Elimination of Traditional Chips
Yeah, gone are those days of using 3W or 5W traditional diodes. Nowadays, it’s too common that brand’s are utilizing 10W dual chip mechanism.
This mechanism not just ensure lower power consumption but also produces light effect similar to a COB LED grow light.
Moreover, this bestva 600W Full spectrum LED is technically equipped with 60 diodes of 10W each. But, if we look closely then there are 120 diodes of 5W each on the board.
However, this dual chip mechanism plays an essential role in minimizing power consumption as power is supplied to only one input point and it further distributes it among rest of two.
- Coverage, Footprint & PAR
As we often recommend our users to focus on these factors more instead of focusing on additional utilities and freebies as majority of time brand’s use those freebies and utilities for trapping and misleading customers.
However, Bestva 600W is capable enough of providing quality light for an area up to 3.5’ X 3.5’. Also, it would be good to mention that manufacturer is mentioning 4’ X 3.5’ of achievable footprint zone.
No! it’s not wrong though it is true if we take LCP of 50 uMol in consideration. However, we believe in utmost quality and that’s why we advised you to utilize it for above mentioned area.
If you’re looking for a mention of achievable PAR readings then you’ll get 430 uMol from 18” height. Yeah, pretty efficient.
- Power consumption & Cooling
Yeah, assuming it to be cheap led grow light is not just right because when you look at the picture for longer run you’ll realize that it’s pretty much cost effective.
Yes! For delivering quality light it just consumes 125W of electricity on average and that too when you run it with bloom & veg both mode active.
Lastly, if we talk about cooling caliber then bestva 600W LED grow light is equipped with two remarkably powerful cooling fans along with an aluminium sink, which functions as we expected it to be.
What Makes Bestva 600W A Right Cheap LED Light For Growing?
Pros And Cons Of Bestva 600W LED Grow Light
Who Should Buy Bestva 600W LED Grow Light?
5. Apollo Horticulture 180W LED :- A UFO Light to Skyrocket Your Yield
Guess, what we’ve next in our arsenal of best cheap LED grow lights?
Yeah, it’s a UFO LED Grow Light Bulb that’s loved by many and recommended with open heart.
Many of our team members were ignoring it as it looks old fashioned, but jane came forward and adviced to check it once.
Yeah, in our opinion “outdated” is just a linguistic measure and one should avoid it as much as possible; especially when you’re hunting for one of the best in terms of quality and not in terms of trend.
So, let’s check what we found in our tests and observations?
Features & Benefits of Apollo Horticulture 180W LED
- Compact Design
Well, unlike other LED grow lights nowadays available on the market, this one comes in a UFO like circular shape. It just don’t minimize space requirements but this design also plays an essential role in producing effective light & its delivery.
It just weighs 5.5 pounds and could be hanged inside any type of grow space with help of hanging rope provided in the the box.
- Full Spectrum Light
Apollo Horticulture is a well known name in indoor growing and horticulture industry, so mentioning things about its quality isn’t just ideal here.
Yeah, you might be expecting a spectrum with all 12 bands in your “to be” LED grow light and that’s what included in this. Apollo Horticulture 180W delivers a complete full spectrum effect.
- Effective Coverage & Power Pulling
If coverage is your prime concern and you’re looking for a light suitable for 3’X3’ of area then this one is unfortunately not suitable to you.
Yeah, it’s capable of covering only 2.5’X2.5’ of area at its best. However, in 180W segment this is the best we found by comparing almost 7 well known brand’s products with it.
Moreover, power requirement is also inside the bearable bar of 109W. Yeah, it’s efficient from power consumption point of view as well.
- Cooling & Support
Well, the bulb itself is very compact in size so only one cooling fan duct is found on the backside of the UFO.
Moreover, Apollo Horticulture 180W doesn’t product a lot of heat like other cheap panels and that’s why the one cooling fan is enough in our expert’s opinion.
Also, From support’s perspective Apollo has got some great customer feedback on their arsenal and their must be some reasons behind their existing customer’s appraisals.
Yeah, they provide decent backup in undesired situations.
What Makes Apollo Horticulture 180W A Right Cheap LED Grow Light?
Pros And Cons Of Apollo Horticulture 180W LED
Who Should Buy Apollo Horticulture 180W LED?
6. Relassy 450W COB LED Waterproof :- An Affordable LED Grow Light That Works
Here it comes an LED Grow Light by an under rated brand. Yeah, there’s very less talk about this panel among indoor gardeners but whoever has used it spoken only good about it. So, we thought to give it a try ourselves and this Realssy 450W COB Review is going to be focused entirely on our own tests and experiments.
Let’s move towards the review of this budget friendly LED Grow Light now.
Features & Benefits of Relassy 450W COB LED Waterproof
- Cheaply Affordable :- Price That’s Worth To Spend
Yeah, usually ordinary COBs are priced above 100s of bucks but this grow light is available below that bar. And, that’s what we liked the most about it.
A beginner planning to try COBs our might get their first step with this panel as risk of losing investment decreases and probability of getting grip over COBs increases with this price tag.
- Build & Light Quality :- Strong Enough To Improve Things
If you’re thinking that Relassy 450W LED Grow Light Is available just for 60-70$ so there won’t be anything to provide more than that price, then you’re wrong.
Yeah, light is available for very less price that we think like that but we’ve checked that materials used in making it is of top rated quality.
Moreover, a complete full spectrum with all vital bands in the range of 380nm-780nm has been covered in its light effect.
Also, COB knobs placed on its front side are from the well-known brand bridgelux so you could rely on it.
- Coverage & Density of Light :- How Much It Could Cover?
Realssy 450W is dense enough to cover an area of around 3’X2’ with ease.
Also, light quality isn’t compromised while covering that area as the PAR reading showcasing its density lies at around 1080 uMol from height of 20”.
Moreover, plants raised using Realssy 450W COB LED Grow Light are observed to be greener compared to other cheap led grow light available on the market.
- Power consumption :- Less Compared To Others in This Segment
Well, this COB LED Grow Light sucks on average 200W for optimal performance.
Upon checking we found that if we take pricing and COB both things as a segment then this is the least power pulling by an COB in this price.
- Waterproofing & Safety :- First panel in this pricing with waterproofing
This LED Grow light is IP67 waterproofing where if water is spread over COB diodes then there won’t be any issue in its working. However, you’re suppose to take care of one thing that water shouldn’t enter into the body of panel.
Moreover, this panel is safe to utilize in a grow tent of any kind of plants, yeah, let it be Cannabis or your veggies.
What Makes Relassy 450W Waterproof A Right LED Light For Growing?
Pros And Cons Of Relassy 450W COB LED Waterproof
Who Should Buy Relassy 450W COB LED Waterproof?
7. Growstar 45W LED Grow Panel :- Suitable for Small Segment Of Plants
Are you looking for a small LED Grow Light that is capable of serving good quality light to your couple of small plats?
Then Growstar 45W would be a perfect fit for such case. Yeah, this is the grow light we used to keep on our growspace during seedling phase of marijuana plants.
Yes, that’s true because this grow light is pretty economic when it comes to power requirements; also light delivered by it is enough for seeds to get sprouted.
However, it also suits to adult plants of small sizing and higher density.
Features & Benefits of Growstar 45W LED Grow Panel
- Compact Sizing & Lightweight :- Compatible for Small Grow Areas
Yeah, as you could predict with help of above mentioned specifications, this grow light is pretty small in size and on the other hand it’s slim as well.
Also, it weighs too less and hence can be mounted on any kind of support.
Moreover, build quality is heavily reliable and is far better than what it takes in term of pricing.
- Reliable Spectrum :- Good For Plants
Yeah, for less than 35 bucks you’re getting some good quality from it when it comes to spectral caliber.
All essential bands starting from 380nm to 740nm has been included in Growstar 45W’s spectrum effect. Yeah, it includes UV and IR for the purpose of better sterilization and plant bloom.
- Density & Coverage :- Lower Side of It But Works
Well, if you’re expecting massive coverage and highly dense light from this price range then there’s something wrong in your planning.
Yeah, for that price you might get a fake product that don’t hesitate to lie for making a sell but here Growstar is honest enough to tell you that this one is only suitable for 1’X1’ of coverage expectation.
And from height of 12” it delivers PAR output equivalent to 105uMol.
Well, that’s not sufficient for plants like marijuana and we only recommend it for the purpose of seedling.
- Power Consumption & Cooling :- Why Does it Need Cooling?
Well, as stated in this best cheap LED grow light’s review, this one is only ideal for side jobs you do in your indoor gardening hustle.
Also, due to compact sizing and low density this panel don’t get heat even after long time usage. Hence, this grow light doesn’t require a cooling facility and it’s absent in it likewise.
Moreover, with tremendous performance that is capable to help your smaller plants this grow light only pulls on average 35W for its working and operation.
What Makes Growstar 45W LED Panel A Right Cheap LED Grow Light?
Pros And Cons Of Growstar 45W LED Grow Panel
Who Should Buy Growstar 45W LED Grow Panel?
8. Taotronics LED Grow Bulb 36W :- Heart Winning Bulb
This bulb has made so much of the buzz around indoor cannabis cultivators that we can’t resist ourselves from including it in our list of best budget LED grow lights on the market.
Let’s check what it has so good that people are going crazy for it.
Features & Benefits of Taotronics LED Grow Bulb 36W
- Full Spectrum Effect :- Suffice for Small Plant
Well, you read it right, though we want to make a note here that by full spectrum what we meant is there’s every color band available but ratio of blue & red is good enough to support your plants.
Balancing of other bands won’t be possible in minimal required amount for obvious reasons.
- Umbrella Design :- For better Penetration & Delivery
They’ve utilized umbrella design concept for the making of this fabulous led grow light.
This design helps in improvising penetration and delivery of produced light towards plants canopy.
Yeah, they’re observed to be effective.
- Low Power Consumption :- Good Side
Yeah, this bulb is examined to suck 35W on average. And, this one is pretty economic, especially when you use it for a single plant.